This means that for two thousand years after Julius Caesar's assassination, there was at least one head of state bearing his name. Roman society viewed the passive role during sexual activity , regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar.
The stories were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate him.
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Caesar himself denied the accusations repeatedly throughout his lifetime, and according to Cassius Dio , even under oath on one occasion. Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers,  but later apologised.
Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. Octavian eventually became the first Roman Emperor as Augustus. During his lifetime, Caesar was regarded as one of the best orators and prose authors in Latin—even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style.
A few sentences from other works are quoted by other authors. Among his lost works are his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato , a document written to defame Cato in response to Cicero's published praise. Poems by Julius Caesar are also mentioned in ancient sources.
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These narratives were written and published annually during or just after the actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front. They may have been presented as public readings. The texts written by Caesar, an autobiography of the most important events of his public life, are the most complete primary source for the reconstruction of his biography.
However, Caesar wrote those texts with his political career in mind, so historians must filter the exaggerations and bias contained in it. The modern historiography is influenced by the Octavian traditions, such as when Caesar's epoch is considered a turning point in the history of the Roman Empire.
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Still, historians try to filter the Octavian bias. Many rulers in history became interested in the historiography of Caesar. The second volume listed previous rulers interested in the topic. Charles V ordered a topographic study in France, to place The Gallic Wars in context; which created forty high-quality maps of the conflict.
The contemporary Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent catalogued the surviving editions of the Commentaries , and translated them to Turkish language. Julius Caesar is seen as the main example of Caesarism , a form of political rule led by a charismatic strongman whose rule is based upon a cult of personality , whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order , and being a regime involving prominence of the military in the government.
Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum , photograph published in Bust of Julius Caesar from the British Museum.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Roman dictator.
For other uses, see Julius Caesar disambiguation. For other uses, see Caesar disambiguation. This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Tusculum portrait , possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime. Archaeological Museum, Turin , Italy. Serving with Mark Antony. Cornelius Dolabella Suffect Mark Antony.
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Serving with M. Aemilius Lepidus 46 BC. Serving with P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus. Claudius Marcellus Maior L. Serving with Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. Julia Caesarion Augustus adoptive. Main article: Early life and career of Julius Caesar. Main article: Gallic Wars. Main article: Caesar's Civil War. Main article: Constitutional reforms of Julius Caesar. See also: Assassination of Julius Caesar. See also: Divus Julius and Caesar's Comet. Main article: Gaius Julius Caesar name. Main article: Julio-Claudian family tree.
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Main article: Caesarism. Main article: Cultural depictions of Julius Caesar. Modern bronze statue of Julius Caesar, Rimini , Italy. There is some dispute over the year of Caesar's birth. Similarly, some scholars prefer 12 July,  but most give 13 July. The Oxford Companion to the Year. Oxford University Press. The making of the Roman Army: from Republic to Empire. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. University of Chicago. Archived from the original on 30 May Life of Caesar.
Project Gutenberg e-text. Archived from the original on 9 December The misconception that Julius Caesar himself was born by Caesarian section dates back at least to the 10th century Suda kappa Julius wasn't the first to bear the name, and in his time the procedure was only performed on dead women, while Caesar's mother Aurelia lived long after he was born. Archived from the original on 22 March Plutarch Caesar 1. Velleius Paterculus Roman History Julius Caesar: Conqueror and Dictator.
The Rosen Publishing Group. Caesar de Bello Gallico. Cambridge Elementary Classics. Retrieved 26 December Lives of the Caesars. Translated by J. A History of the British Isles. Palgrave MacMillan. Retrieved 6 April Because of chronic internal rivalries, Gallic resistance was easily broken, though Vercingetorix's Great Rebellion of 52 bce had notable successes. Retrieved 15 February Indeed, the Gallic cavalry was probably superior to the Roman, horseman for horseman.
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