Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry)


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Christopher G. Gray, Keith E. Gubbins, and Christopher G. Joslin

The bain-marie , or water bath, is named for Mary the Jewess. Her work also gives the first descriptions of the tribikos and kerotakis. During the Renaissance, exoteric alchemy remained popular in the form of Paracelsian iatrochemistry , while spiritual alchemy flourished, realigned to its Platonic , Hermetic, and Gnostic roots. Consequently, the symbolic quest for the philosopher's stone was not superseded by scientific advances, and was still the domain of respected scientists and doctors until the early 18th century. Early modern alchemists who are renowned for their scientific contributions include Jan Baptist van Helmont , Robert Boyle , and Isaac Newton.

In the Islamic World , the Muslims were translating the works of the ancient Greeks and Egyptians into Arabic and were experimenting with scientific ideas. For practitioners in Europe, alchemy became an intellectual pursuit after early Arabic alchemy became available through Latin translation , and over time, they improved.

Paracelsus — , for example, rejected the 4-elemental theory and with only a vague understanding of his chemicals and medicines, formed a hybrid of alchemy and science in what was to be called iatrochemistry. Paracelsus was not perfect in making his experiments truly scientific. For example, as an extension of his theory that new compounds could be made by combining mercury with sulfur, he once made what he thought was "oil of sulfur".

This was actually dimethyl ether , which had neither mercury nor sulfur. There were several problems with alchemy, as seen from today's standpoint. There was no systematic naming scheme for new compounds, and the language was esoteric and vague to the point that the terminologies meant different things to different people.

The language of alchemy soon developed an arcane and secretive technical vocabulary designed to conceal information from the uninitiated. To a large degree, this language is incomprehensible to us today, though it is apparent that readers of Geoffery Chaucer 's Canon's Yeoman's Tale or audiences of Ben Jonson 's The Alchemist were able to construe it sufficiently to laugh at it. Chaucer's tale exposed the more fraudulent side of alchemy, especially the manufacture of counterfeit gold from cheap substances.

Less than a century earlier, Dante Alighieri also demonstrated an awareness of this fraudulence, causing him to consign all alchemists to the Inferno in his writings. A law was passed in England in which made the "multiplication of metals" punishable by death. Despite these and other apparently extreme measures, alchemy did not die.

Royalty and privileged classes still sought to discover the philosopher's stone and the elixir of life for themselves. There was also no agreed-upon scientific method for making experiments reproducible. Indeed, many alchemists included in their methods irrelevant information such as the timing of the tides or the phases of the moon.

The esoteric nature and codified vocabulary of alchemy appeared to be more useful in concealing the fact that they could not be sure of very much at all. As early as the 14th century, cracks seemed to grow in the facade of alchemy; and people became sceptical. Practical attempts to improve the refining of ores and their extraction to smelt metals was an important source of information for early chemists in the 16th century, among them Georg Agricola — , who published his great work De re metallica in His work describes the highly developed and complex processes of mining metal ores, metal extraction and metallurgy of the time.

His approach removed the mysticism associated with the subject, creating the practical base upon which others could build. The work describes the many kinds of furnace used to smelt ore, and stimulated interest in minerals and their composition.

It is no coincidence that he gives numerous references to the earlier author, Pliny the Elder and his Naturalis Historia. Agricola has been described as the "father of metallurgy".

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In , Sir Francis Bacon published The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which contains a description of what would later be known as the scientific method. In Jean Beguin published the Tyrocinium Chymicum , an early chemistry textbook, and in it draws the first-ever chemical equation. The Dutch chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont 's work Ortus medicinae was published posthumously in ; the book is cited by some as a major transitional work between alchemy and chemistry, and as an important influence on Robert Boyle.

The book contains the results of numerous experiments and establishes an early version of the law of conservation of mass. Working during the time just after Paracelsus and iatrochemistry , Jan Baptist van Helmont suggested that there are insubstantial substances other than air and coined a name for them - " gas ", from the Greek word chaos. In addition to introducing the word "gas" into the vocabulary of scientists, van Helmont conducted several experiments involving gases.

Jan Baptist van Helmont is also remembered today largely for his ideas on spontaneous generation and his 5-year tree experiment , as well as being considered the founder of pneumatic chemistry. Anglo-Irish chemist Robert Boyle — is considered to have refined the modern scientific method for alchemy and to have separated chemistry further from alchemy. Although Boyle was not the original discoverer, he is best known for Boyle's law , which he presented in [41] the law describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system.

Boyle is also credited for his landmark publication The Sceptical Chymist in , which is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry. In the work, Boyle presents his hypothesis that every phenomenon was the result of collisions of particles in motion. Boyle appealed to chemists to experiment and asserted that experiments denied the limiting of chemical elements to only the classic four: earth, fire, air, and water. He also pleaded that chemistry should cease to be subservient to medicine or to alchemy, and rise to the status of a science.

Importantly, he advocated a rigorous approach to scientific experiment: he believed all theories must be proved experimentally before being regarded as true. The work contains some of the earliest modern ideas of atoms , molecules , and chemical reaction , and marks the beginning of the history of modern chemistry. Boyle also tried to purify chemicals to obtain reproducible reactions.

Boyle was an atomist, but favoured the word corpuscle over atoms.

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He commented that the finest division of matter where the properties are retained is at the level of corpuscles. He also performed numerous investigations with an air pump , and noted that the mercury fell as air was pumped out. He also observed that pumping the air out of a container would extinguish a flame and kill small animals placed inside. Boyle helped to lay the foundations for the Chemical Revolution with his mechanical corpuscular philosophy. In , German chemist Georg Stahl coined the name " phlogiston " for the substance believed to be released in the process of burning.

Theory of molecular fluids / 2, Applications.

Around , Swedish chemist Georg Brandt analyzed a dark blue pigment found in copper ore. Brandt demonstrated that the pigment contained a new element, later named cobalt. In , a Swedish chemist and pupil of Stahl's named Axel Fredrik Cronstedt , identified an impurity in copper ore as a separate metallic element, which he named nickel. Cronstedt is one of the founders of modern mineralogy.

In , Scottish chemist Joseph Black isolated carbon dioxide , which he called "fixed air". Cavendish discovered hydrogen as a colorless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air, and published a paper on the production of water by burning inflammable air that is, hydrogen in dephlogisticated air now known to be oxygen , the latter a constituent of atmospheric air phlogiston theory.

In , Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered oxygen , which he called "fire air", but did not immediately publish his achievement. However, Priestley's determination to defend phlogiston theory and to reject what would become the chemical revolution eventually left him isolated within the scientific community. In , Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that a new acid , tungstic acid , could be made from Cronstedt's scheelite at the time named tungsten.

Scheele and Torbern Bergman suggested that it might be possible to obtain a new metal by reducing this acid. Later that year, in Spain, the brothers succeeded in isolating the metal now known as tungsten by reduction of this acid with charcoal , and they are credited with the discovery of the element.


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Italian physicist Alessandro Volta constructed a device for accumulating a large charge by a series of inductions and groundings. He investigated the s discovery " animal electricity " by Luigi Galvani , and found that the electric current was generated from the contact of dissimilar metals, and that the frog leg was only acting as a detector. Volta demonstrated in that when two metals and brine-soaked cloth or cardboard are arranged in a circuit they produce an electric current.

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In , Volta stacked several pairs of alternating copper or silver and zinc discs electrodes separated by cloth or cardboard soaked in brine electrolyte to increase the electrolyte conductivity. Thus, Volta is credited with constructing the first electrical battery to produce electricity. Volta's method of stacking round plates of copper and zinc separated by disks of cardboard moistened with salt solution was termed a voltaic pile.

Thus, Volta is considered to be the founder of the discipline of electrochemistry.

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It generally consists of two different metals connected by a salt bridge , or individual half-cells separated by a porous membrane. Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier demonstrated with careful measurements that transmutation of water to earth was not possible, but that the sediment observed from boiling water came from the container. He burnt phosphorus and sulfur in air, and proved that the products weighed more than the original. Nevertheless, the weight gained was lost from the air. Thus, in , he established the Law of Conservation of Mass , which is also called "Lavoisier's Law.

Repeating the experiments of Priestley, he demonstrated that air is composed of two parts, one of which combines with metals to form calxes. The next year, he named this portion oxygen Greek for acid-former , and the other azote Greek for no life. Lavoisier thus has a claim to the discovery of oxygen along with Priestley and Scheele. He also discovered that the "inflammable air" discovered by Cavendish - which he termed hydrogen Greek for water-former - combined with oxygen to produce a dew, as Priestley had reported, which appeared to be water.

In Reflexions sur le Phlogistique , Lavoisier showed the phlogiston theory of combustion to be inconsistent. Mikhail Lomonosov independently established a tradition of chemistry in Russia in the 18th century. Lomonosov also rejected the phlogiston theory, and anticipated the kinetic theory of gases. Lomonosov regarded heat as a form of motion, and stated the idea of conservation of matter.


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  • Lavoisier worked with Claude Louis Berthollet and others to devise a system of chemical nomenclature which serves as the basis of the modern system of naming chemical compounds. In his Methods of Chemical Nomenclature , Lavoisier invented the system of naming and classification still largely in use today, including names such as sulfuric acid , sulfates , and sulfites.

    In , Berthollet was the first to introduce the use of chlorine gas as a commercial bleach. In the same year he first determined the elemental composition of the gas ammonia.

    Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry) Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry)
    Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry) Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry)
    Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry) Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry)
    Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry) Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry)
    Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry) Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry)
    Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry) Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry)
    Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry) Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry)
    Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry) Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry)
    Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry)

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